Temasek (alternatively spelt Temasik) is an early recorded name of a settlement on the site of modern Singapore. The name appears in early Malay and Javanese literature, and it is also recorded in Yuan and Ming Chinese documents as Danmaxi (Chinese: 單馬錫; pinyin: Dānmǎxí; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tan-má-sek).The origin of the name Temasek is uncertain, however it has been proposed that the name is derived from the same root as the Malay word tasek, which means “lake”, implying a reference to a piece of land surrounded by water. Another suggestion is that it may be a reference to a king of Srivijaya, Maharaja Tan ma sa na bo. The name appears as Tumasik in the Old Javanese epic poem written in 1365, Nagarakretagama. The name is also mentioned twice in the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals). The first occurs in the story of Raja Chulan, a great king of India, who set out to conquer China, only for the Chinese to intercept him at Temasik. The second mention is in the context of Sri Tri Buana’s discovery of the island of Temasik, which is also referred to in the Javanese work Pararaton. Temasek is described in the account by the Chinese traveller Wang Dayuan who visited the island around 1330 and wrote about a Malay settlement called Danmaxi, a transcription of the name Temasek. Temasek may have also been mentioned in Vietnamese records in the 14th century.
Formed to deter increasing regional aggression from the now-defunct communist State of East China, the nation was created as a direct result of the Temasek Agreement (Malay: Perjanjian Temasek), an agreement signed on 19th July 2030 between the governments of Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei as well as the chief ministers of former Indonesian territories, Kalimantan, Kepulauan Riau, and Kepulautan Bangka-Belitung, a agreement under which the aforementioned states were to merge into a new single entity, with all laws being administered from the former Republic of Singapore as it serves as the new nation's capital. Originally a signatory to the Agreement, Indonesia (current Plurinational Republic of Eustrastan) withdrew after a series of incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, riots and civil unrest of a racial nature rocked its major cites. Instigated by several groups of self-described "patriotic" and "pro-Indonesia" extremists, it was believed that the merger to form Temasek would be detrimental to the Indonesian identity. From April 15 to May 8, 2030, the ethnic Malays and Chinese would become the primary targets of the racial violence, with approximations of the death toll as high as several hundred in several areas, as it was deduced that the two aforementioned racial groups were "traitors" and "anti-Indonesia". Under threat from such extremist groups and pressure from separatist movements, the decision was made by the Chief Ministers of Chinese and Malay-majority states, Kepulauan Riau, and Kepulautan Bangka-Belitung to secede from Indonesia and join Temasek as a method of preventing further violence and unrest. The region of Kailmantan would follow several days later as a referendum for secession was held following mounting pressure on the central governments of the five provinces from long-standing separatist movements, with 97.53% of the population in favour of seceding from Indonesia and joining Temasek as a single united Kalimantan with the city of Pontianak functioning as the state's official capital.
National Flag Edit
The National Flag of Temasek, officially known as the Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory) is mainly composed of a field navy blue bearing an off-center yellow crescent and a 21-pointed star known as the Bintang Persekutuan (Federal Star). Three smaller white stars, arranged in a triangular fashion, surround the crescent and Bintang Persekutuan, while three vertical stripes of equal width, alternating between red and white run the length of the flag toward the right side, situated next to a yellow wreath surrounding a pair of crossed keris.
The Bintang Persekutuan represents the equal status of the states and Federal Territories in the federation while each of the star's individual points symbolize each of the seventeen states and four Federal Territories, as well as the unity between these entities. The crescent represents Temasek as a young nation on the ascent while the three white stars stand for the nation's ideas of democracy, justice and progress, with the pair of crossed keris representing Temasek's military might and the will of the rakyat to fight to defend the aforementioned values, as well as the peace that is symbolized by the wreath. In a similar manner, the three vertical stripes of alternating red and white symbolizes the blood shed for the nation, pervading and everlasting incorruptibility of the government, and blood shed in defence the alliance, while the blue field is representative of the unity of the rakyat regardless of race, language or religion, and yellow in reference to the royal colour of the ancient Malay rulers.
National Anthem Edit
Setia Negaraku (English: Loyal, My Country) is the national anthem of the Republic of Temasek. Originally composed as a patriotic song by a group of ordinary Temasekians, the song was adopted in 2030 as the nation's national anthem following a competition that would permit the rakyat of Temasek to choose a new national anthem. By law, the anthem is required to be sung with the original Malay lyrics, although unofficial English translations also exist. The national anthem is regularly performed or sung in schools and armed forces camps at ceremonies held at the beginning and/or the end of each day, during which the national flag is also raised or lowered. The rakyat of Temasek are especially encouraged to sing the national anthem on occasions of national celebration or national significance such as at the National Day Parade, at National Day observance ceremonies conducted by educational institutions and government departments, and at sporting events at which teams from Temasek are participating.
|Original Malay Lyrics|
|Demi negara yang tercinta|
Di curahkan bakti penuh setia
Temasek is the 65th largest country by total land area, with a land area of 1,144,663.65 square kilometers (711,261.02 square miles). It shares a land border with the Kingdom of Siam north of Peninsular Temasek while also maintaining maritime boundaries with Plurinational Republic of Eustrastan, and the Federal Republic of the Philippines in the south and east, respectively.
Located near the equator, Temasek's climate is categorized as equatorial, being hot and humid throughout the year. The average rainfall is 250 centimeters (98 in) a year and the average temperature is 27 °C (80.6 °F). The climates of the Peninsula and East Temasek differ, as the climate on the Peninsula is directly affected by wind from mainland Asia, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Temasek is exposed to the El Niño effect, which reduces rainfall in the dry season. Climate change is likely to have a significant effect on Temasek, increasing sea levels and rainfall, increasing flooding risks and leading to large droughts.
Temasek faces two monsoon winds seasons, the Southwest Monsoon from late May to September, and the Northeast Monsoon from October to March. The Northeast Monsoon brings in more rainfall compared to the Southwest Monsoon, originating in China and the north Pacific. The southwest monsoon originates from the deserts of Australia. March and October form transition period between the two monsoon seasons.
Local climates are also affected by the presence of mountain ranges throughout Temasek, and climate can be divided into that of the highlands, the lowlands, and coastal regions. The coastal areas have a sunny climate, with temperatures ranging between 23 and 32 °C (73.4 and 89.6 °F), and rainfall ranging from 10 to 30 centimeters (4 to 12 in) a month. The lowlands have a similar temperature, but follow a more distinctive rainfall pattern and show very high humidity levels. The highlands are cooler and wetter, and display a greater temperature variation. A large amount of cloud cover is present over the highlands, which have humidity levels that do not fall below 75%.
The highest temperature recorded in the history Temasek was at Chuping, Perlis on 9 April 2031 at 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) while the lowest temperature was recorded at Cameron Highlandson 1 February 2033 at 7.8 °C (46.0 °F). The snowfall was recorded in a year was 1 cm (0.4 in) at Mount Kinabalu, Sabah in 2035 and 2038. The highest rainfall recorded in a day was 608 mm (23.9 in) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan on 6 January 2035, while the highest recorded in a year was 5,687 mm (223.9 in) at Sandakan, Sabah in 2039. Contrarily, the lowest rainfall recorded in a year was 1,151 mm (45.3 in) at Tawau, Sabah in 2032. The wettest place in Temasek is Kuching, Sarawak with an average rainfall of 4,159 mm (163.7 in) with 279 days of rain a year while the driest place is in Sitiawan, Perak with average rainfall of only 1,787 mm (70.4 in) a year.
Temasek is located on the Sunda shelf and is tectonically inactive. The oldest rocks in the country date from 540 million years ago, and are mostly sedimentary. The most common form of rock is limestone, formed during the Paleozoic Era. Limestone laid down in East Temasek during the Tertiary period has since eroded, and such erosion forms basins of sedimentary rocks rich in oil and natural gas. The mountain ranges in Temasek were formed through orogenesis beginning in the Mesozoic era.
The total land area of Temasek is 1,144,663.65 square kilometers (711,261.02 square miles), making it possibly the largest nation in the Australasia region in terms of area, and the only country to contain land on both mainland Asia and the Malay archipelago. Peninsular Temasek makes up 384,909.50 square kilometres (239,171.67 square miles), or approximately 30% of the country's land area, while East Temasek covers 743,330 square kilometres (461,883.85 square miles), or approximately 70%. From the total land area, 1,200 square kilometres (460 sq mi) or 0.37% is made up of water such as lakes, rivers, or other internal bodies of water. Temasek also has 29th longest coastline in the world with a total coastline of 4,675 kilometres (2,905 mi), Peninsular Temasek has 2,068 kilometres (1,285 mi), while East Temasek has 2,607 kilometres (1,620 mi) of coastline.
The two distinct parts of Temasek, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular and East Temasek feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. Peninsular Temasek, including its island capital of Singapore and archipelago states of Kepulautan Riau and Kepulautan Bangka-Belitung, covers the southern half of the Malay Peninsula, extending 740 kilometres (460 mi) from north to south, with a maximum width of 322 kilometres (200 mi) and more than half of it over 150 metres (492 ft) above sea level. Peninsular Temasek is also relatively mountainous, being divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains which rise to a peak elevation of 2,183 metres (7,162 ft) at Mount Korbu, part of a series of mountain ranges running down the center of the mainland Peninsula. These mountains, once heavily forested, are mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape which are also the origin of some of the Peninsula's river systems. The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi). Approximately half of mainland Peninsular Temasek is covered by granite and other igneous rocks while a third is covered by stratified rocks older than the granite, and the remainder is covered by alluvium. Similar to mainland Peninsular Temasek, the nation's island capital of Singapore is predominately comprised of igneous rocks with granite and gabbro making up the bulk of the rocks found. Sedimentary rocks are found on the western to southwestern parts of Singapore, mainly comprising of sandstone and mudstone. Metamorphic rocks, primarily comprised of quartzite, may also be found in the northeastern part of Singapore, and also on Pulau Tekong off the east coast of the main island of Singapore.
East Temasek on the island of Borneo lies astride the Equator with a length of 830 miles (1,336 km) from northeast to southwest and a maximum width of 600 miles (960 km). The island's interior is largely mountainous, although there are also extensive lowlands, coastal plains, hills and valleys. Much of the state of Brunei is situated in what used to be dense rainforest, with a landscape primarily comprised of fertile, hilly lowland. Contrarily, the state of Kalimantan is predominantly mountainous, with lowlands extending from the central to southern regions, while Sarawak is mainly comprised of coastal lowlands which shift to a series of plateaus going north, ending in the mountainous regions of Sabah. A long series of mountain ranges also extends southwest across the island from Mount Kinabalu in the far northeast, which, at an elevation of 13,455 feet (4,101 metres), is the island’s greatest height and is also the tallest peak in Temasek. Ranges in the central spine include the Crocker, the Nieuwenhuis, and the Muller mountains, while the Kapuas Hulu Mountains branch westward from the central core along the state border between Sarawak and the western region of Kalimantan, and a separate and discontinuous series of ranges parallel the east and southeast coasts in eastern and southern Kalimantan.
A large part of East Temasek is also drained by navigable rivers, which represent the principal lifeline of trade and commerce other than through air or by land. The main rivers of Kalimantan are the Kapuas in the west and the Mahakam in the east while further north few rivers are navigable for more than 160 kilometres as the island narrows, often much less, a condition largely influential in the Federal Government's decision to build the extensive Peninsular-East Temasek Undersea Tunnel, which stretches from Kuala Lumpur to the western coast of Sabah as a means of better connecting the northern East Temasek states with the rest of the nation.
International/Foreign Relations Edit
Temasek is a relatively isolated nation bordered only by three other nations, the Kingdom of Siam to the north, the Plurinational Republic of Eustrastan to the south, and the Federal Republic of the Philippines to the east. The main core principle of Temasek's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining political and economic stability and security in surrounding generally turbulent Southeast Asia region. While bilateral relations with surrounding Southeast Asia nations have generally been neutral to friendly, disagreements have arisen and relations with neighbouring Philippines and Eustrastan have occasionally been strained.
Although relations between the Philippines and Temasek have mostly been neutral with only rare interactions between the two, Temasek has had several instances of territorial disputes with the Philippines over much of the state of Sabah in East Temasek. The Philippines, presenting itself as the successor state of the Sultanate of Sulu, maintains the narrative that it has a "dormant claim" on Sabah on the basis that the territory was historically only leased to Brunei in 1875 with the sovereignty of the territory never having been fully relinquished by the then-Sultanate of Sulu, and thus contemporary Philippines. Temasek however, considers this dispute a "non-issue" as it interprets the 1875 agreement as that of cession, as well as deeming that the people of Sabah had exercised their right to self-determination when they joined to form the Malaysian Federation in 1963, and again in 2030 when the current Federation of the Republic of Temasek was formed.
Temasek and Eustrastan have also repeatedly struggled over frequent issues, specifically airspace disputes and "unauthorized access of Eustrastan airspace" by Temasek Air Force assets flying over Eustrastan-held Sumatra as they arrive and depart from an Temasek Air Force base located in Kepulautan Bangka Belitung. Border disputes with Eustrastan over ownership of the Karimata and Bangka Straits as well as the Java Sea, have also existed, with such issues having been resolved by the International Court of Arbitration at the Hague, who awarded both straits to Temasek as well as the northern section of the Java Sea, ending 22 kilometers off the southernmost point of East Temasek. In spite of past issues and strained relations however, both Temasek and Eustrastan have since developed into close allies with no outstanding disputes and cooperating strongly in the area of defense, with Temasek adopting Eustrastan as its personal protectorate as well as signing MDoAP, NAP and PIAT treaties. Close cooperation on an economic front has also seen Temasek and Eustrastan enter into a Mutual Free Trade Agreement as well as a Currency Interchangeability Agreement, allowing both nations to share a pegged currency value and making both the Eustrastan Rupiah and Temasek Dollar legal tender in both nations.
The Temasek Armed Forces (TAF, Malay: Angkatan Tentera Temasek- ATT) is the military of Temasek which consists of three branches, namely the Tentera Darat Temasek (Army), Angkatan Laut Temasek (Navy), and Tentera Udara Temasek (Air Force).
The Angkatan Tentera Temasek was created shortly after the nation's inception in 2030. With all 18 year old Temasekian citizens having to undergo 2 years of compulsory National Service in the military, the nation boasts an impressive technologically-advanced armed forces 20 years ahead of its time, consisting of an ever growing number of men and state of the art weapon platforms, including sophisticated armour and artillery forces, hypersonic warp-capable stealth fighters, and cloaked stealth frigates, destroyers and corvettes, allowing Temasek to launch devastating pre-emptive strikes against any potential aggressors. The Republic also possesses a formidable arsenal of ballistic missiles and numerous warheads including: nuclear, EMP, napalm and plasma, which may be utilized in strike against several bigger opposing nations to cripple their military and thus inhibit their ability to conduct war.
Government of Temasek Edit
The Government of Temasek, officially the Federal Government of Temasek (Malay: Kerajaan Persekutuan Temasek) is based in the Federal Territory and national capital of Singapore, with the exception of the legislative branch, which alternates between the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Temasek operates as a Federal Republic under the Westminster parliamentary system and is categorized as a representative democracy. The federal government of Temasek adheres to and is created by the Federal Constitution of Temasek, the supreme law of the nation.
The Federal Government also adopts the principle of separation of powers under Article 127 of the Federal Constitution, and as such is comprised of three branches: executive, legislature and judiciary. The state governments of Temasek also have their respective executive and legislative bodies, however any conflict of interest may see a state government's decision overruled by that of the Federal Government. The judicial system in Temasek is a federalized court system operating uniformly throughout the country.
Federal government Edit
The federal or central government is the ultimate authority in Temasek and is located in the national capital and Federal Territory of Singapore. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Temasek who is also known as the head of government.
The Cabinet of Temasek is the executive branch of Temasek's government. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Constitution, members of the Cabinet may only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament, with the the President formally appointing the Prime Minister before appointing all other Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, unless the appointment of any Minister is revoked by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Thus in practice, the role of the president is merely ceremonial in most instances as the President is commonly obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister, or that of any Cabinet member as the Constitution also vests "general direction and control of the government" in the Cabinet
Head of government Edit
The Prime Minister of Temasek (Malay: Perdana Menteri Temasek) is the indirectly elected head of government (executive) of Temasek. He is officially appointed by the President, in whose judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the Dewan Rakyat, the elected lower house of Parliament. The Prime Minister heads the Cabinet, whose members are appointed by the President on advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions and powers.
Cabinet appointments Edit
Members of the Cabinet must be members of either house of Parliament. Most ministers are appointed from the Dewan Rakyat, although a few may also be appointed from the Dewan Negara. Although Deputy Ministers and/or Parliamentary Secretaries may be appointed to each portfolio, they are not included in the Cabinet as the position of Parliamentary Secretary was removed following the beginning of live telecasts of Parliament proceedings
Cabinet composition Edit
The composition of the Cabinet, and the number of portfolios depends mainly on the wishes of the Prime Minister at the time. However, the post of Finance Minister was considered so important as to be a necessity, and as a result was incorporated by the Minister of Finance (Incorporation) Act 1957 (Act 375). The position of Deputy Prime Minister is one that exists by convention, and as a result a Prime Minister could theoretically form a Cabinet without a Deputy.
Deputy ministers also exist for each portfolio, although they are not considered members of the Cabinet. The position of Deputy Minister was created by constitutional amendment in 2030. The office of parliamentary secretary for each ministry exists but none were appointed after the 2030 general election. Parliamentary secretaries were provided for by an amendment in 2030. Deputy ministers and parliamentary secretaries are also appointed from members of Parliament, and deputise for the ministers in government ministries and in Parliament respectively. An additional office for Political Secretaries also exists, however they are commonly not members of Parliament. Before taking office, all members of the Cabinet, Deputy Ministers, Parliamentary Secretaries, and Political Secretaries take an oath of secrecy concerning the proceedings of the Cabinet.
Functions of cabinet Edit
An outline of the functions of the Cabinet are as follows:
- To formulate national economic policies and development programs.
- The Cabinet is responsible to formulate various development programs and projects for the development of the country. Examples are the New Economic Policy (NEP), the National Development Policy (NDP), and the National Vision Policy (NVP).
- To set the budget and finance of the country.
- The government is allowed to generate revenues from the people through the collection of taxes, fines, summons, custom duties, fees, etc.
- The government is allowed to plan for the various development programs, and also to allocate the resources for these development plans and programs.
- As an arena for suggestions, debates, and criticisms.
- The Cabinet is allowed to discuss almost any issues of national interests, except those that touch on the special rights of the Bumiputera. Article 153 (1): It shall be the responsibility of the President to safeguard the special position of the Natives of any of the four Eastern States, and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
- To propose and amend the law.
- Law is proposed by the Executive and introduced in Parliament with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd readings for approval.
- Most provisions for the amendments of the constitution requires a 2/3 majority of the total number of members from both the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara.
- The bill must be presented to the President for the final assent.
The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara. All seventy members of the Dewan Negara sit for three-year terms to a maximum of two terms, with thirty-four elected by the seventeen state assemblies with two representatives per state, and thirty-six appointed by the President based on the advice of the Prime Minister. The 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat are elected from single-member districts by universal adult suffrage. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the governing body is elected through a first-past-the-post system with maximum mandate of five years by law. The President may dissolve parliament at any time and usually does so upon the advice of the Prime Minister.
The Parliament is permitted to legislate on issues of land and local government to ensure uniform law across all seventeen states, or upon the request of a state's Dewan Undangan Negeri, in which the law in question must also have been passed by that state's Dewan Undangan Negeri, except in cases of land-related laws. The Parliament of Temasek may also legislate on all matters concerning the nation's four Federal Territories as all Federal Territories fall under the direct administration of the Temasek Government, specifically under the purview of the Ministry of the Federal Territories. Each Federal Territory also elects representatives from single-member constituencies drawn based on population to the Dewan Rakyat, with the President appointing senators to represent the territories in the Dewan Negara; Singapore and Kuala Lumpur have two senators, while Putrajaya and Labuan each have one.
The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal, and two High Courts, one for Peninsular Temasek, and one for East Temasek. The subordinate courts in each of these jurisdictions include Sessions Courts, Magistrates' Courts, and Courts for Children.
State governments Edit
A Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Assembly) is the legislative branch of the state governments for each of the seventeen states of Temasek with the power to enact laws in their respective states as provided for by the Constitution of Temasek. Each of the seventeen state governments in Temasek are created in accordance their respective state constitutions with each state operating its own unicameral legislative assemblies under the Westminster Parliamentary system. Members of Dewan Undangan Negeri are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population, with the majority party in each of the seventeen state assemblies forming their respective state governments. Following this, the leader of the majority party in the Dewan Undangan Negeri is then appointed as the Ketua Menteri (Chief Minister) of that particular state, whose job it is to advise their state's Yang di-Pertua Negeri, (Governor). The term of Dewan Undangan Negeri members is five years unless the assembly is dissolved earlier at the discretion of a state's Yang di-Pertua Negeri on the advice of the Ketua Menteri. Once dissolved, elections must be carried out within an interim period of sixty (60) days, which is commonly assured through state elections being held in conjunction with federal parliamentary elections, in which each state, with the exception of the four East Temasek states, is required to send two state assembly members elected by the Dewan Undangan Negeri to act as representatives of their states in the Dewan Negara.
Local governments Edit
The local government or local authority (Malay: kerajaan tempatan or pihak berkuasa tempatan) is the lowest level in the system of government in Temasek. It has the power to collect taxes (in the form of assessment tax), to create laws and rules (in the form of by-laws) and to grant licenses and permits for any trade in its area of jurisdiction, in addition to providing basic amenities, collecting and managing waste and garbage as well as planning and developing the area under its jurisdiction. Local authorities in Temasek are generally under the exclusive purview of the state governments and headed by a civil servant with the title Yang Di-Pertua (President). Local government areas and the boundaries is usually consistent with district boundaries but there are some places where the boundaries are not consistent and may overlap with adjoining districts especially in urbanised areas.
Unlike the federal and state governments, the local governments in Temasek are not elected, rather appointed by the state government after local council elections were suspended by the federal government due to the time-consuming nature of such a process.
States and Federal Territories Edit
Temasek is comprised of a total of seventeen States (Negeri) and four Federal Territories (Wilayah Persekutuan) inclusive of the capital, with each representing a principal administrative division of Temasek. Thirteen states, as well as the nation's island capital of Singapore, and Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya are located on Peninsular Temasek (Semenanjung Temasek), while four semi-autonomous states located on the island of Borneo, and the remaining federal territory, consisting of islands off the coast of Borneo, form East Temasek (Temasek Timur).
Negeri (States) Edit
Note: While Kalimantan is officially considered a single State by the Federal Government of Temasek, it may be split into five separate 'sub-states' or Divisions, each with their own major city for purposes such as polling, and thus shown as such.
|State Flag||Emblem||Negeri (State)||Capital/Major City||Population||Total Area (km2)||Abbreviation||HDI||Region|
|Brunei||Bandar Seri Begawan||428,697||5,765||BNI||0.853||East|
|Kalimantan Tengah||Palangka Raya||1,913,026||153,565||KMT||0.754||East|
|Kalimantan Utara||Tanjung Selor||473,424||72,275||KMU||0.747||East|
|Kepulautan Riau||Tanjung Pinang||2,028,169||10,595.41||KRU||0.780||Peninsular|
|Kepulautan Bangka-Belitung||Pangkal Pinang||1,430,900||16,424.14||KBL||0.82||Peninsular|
Wilayah Persekutuan (Federal Territories) Edit
|Federal Territory Flag||Emblem||Wilayah Persekutuan (Federal Territory)||Capital City||Population||Total Area (km2)||Abbreviation||HDI||Region|
|Singapore (National Capital)||Singapore City||5,638,700||725.50||SGP||0.932||Peninsular|
|Kuala Lumpur||Kuala Lumpur City||1,768,000||243||KUL||0.857||Peninsular|
State Governance Edit
The governance of the seventeen states is divided between the federal and state governments headed by a Ketua Menteri, while the federal territories are administered solely by the federal government. The specific responsibilities of the federal and the state governments are listed in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of The Republic of Temasek. Theoretically, any matter not set out in the Ninth Schedule may be legislated on by the individual states, however, legal scholars generally view this as a "pauper's bequest" due to the large scope of the matters listed in the Ninth Schedule. The courts themselves have generally favoured a broad interpretation of the language of the Ninth Schedule, thus limiting the number of possible subjects not covered. The Ninth Schedule specifically lists the following matters as those that can only be legislated on by the states: land tenure, and the local government.
Semi-autonomy of East Temasek Edit
Unlike Peninsular Temasek whose immigration policies are standardized by the Federal Government based in Singapore, the four semi-autonomous states of East Temasek possess additional powers over their immigration controls as part of an 18-point agreement first drawn up by Sabah and Sarawak when they originally joined the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia in 1963. Following the creation of the Republic of Temasek in 2030, the original 18-point agreement was promptly amended to cover the two new states of Brunei and Kalimantan, ensuring that all four semi-autonomous states possess immigration policies and controls separate to those of the Peninsula, as well as a unique residency status. As a result of this, passports are often required even for Peninsular Temasek residents travelling between East and Peninsular Temasek, or between any of the four semi-autonomous states, with the only exception being holders of social or business passes who are permitted to use their National Registration Identity Card (NRIC) and obtain a special printout form in lieu of a passport which may be valid for up to three months.
Kempen Satu Borneo (One Borneo Campaign) Edit
Kempen Satu Borneo, or the One Borneo Campaign was a political campaign initiated by the Temasek Federal Government following the ascension of Brunei and Kalimantan as member states of Temasek. The campaign, running since 2031, focused on the idea of creating a larger common "Identiti Orang Borneo" (Borneo People identity), with the aim of better integrating the two new Eastern States with existing Sabah and Sarawak.
Temasek has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, Temasek is one of the original Four Asian Tigers, but has surpassed its peers in terms of GDP per capita.
The Temasekian economy is known as one of the freest, most innovative, most competitive, most dynamic, and most business-friendly. The 2040 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Temasek as the second freest economy in the world and the Ease of doing business index has also ranked Temasek as the easiest place to do business for the past decade. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Temasek is consistently perceived as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with neighboring Eustrastan. In 2037, Temasek was rated the world's most expensive city for the third consecutive year by the Orbis Economist Intelligence Unit.
For several years, Temasek has been one of the few countries with an AAA credit rating from the "big three", and the only Asian country to achieve this rating. Temasek also attracts a large amount of foreign investment, particularly from neighbouring countries, as a result of its location, skilled workforce, low tax rates, advanced infrastructure and zero-tolerance against corruption. Temasek has the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves as well as one of the highest net international investment position per capita, with more than 7,000 multinational corporations operating in Temasek. Temasek is the 10th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world, primarily exporting crude oil, gasoline and uranium, while importing manufactured goods such as steel and aluminum. Over ten free-trade agreements have also been signed with other nations.
The currency of Temasek is the Temasek dollar (TKD or TK$), issued by the Monetary Authority of Temasek (MAT) as well as the national bank, Bank Negara (BN). It is interchangeable with the Eustrastan Rupiah at par value since 2038, owing to the two nations' close relations. MAT and BN both manage their monetary policy by allowing the Temasek dollar exchange rate to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most central banks, which use interest rates to manage policy.
In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. In 2038, Temasek was removed from the OCDE "liste grise" of tax havens, but ranked third on the Tax Justice Network's 2039 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's off-shore financial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's off-shore capital, while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities".
Temasek also has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Temasek, particularly in the capital of Singapore, is among the world's most expensive.
Temasek traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The unemployment rate did not exceed 4% from 2031 to 2038, hitting a high of 3.1% in 2039, and 3% during the 2040 global financial crisis. Recently, it has fell to 1.8% in the first quarter of 2042.
The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the Ministry of Social and Family Development, so acute poverty is rare. Some of the programmes include providing between TKD400 to TKD1000 per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's school fees. The Temasek government also provides numerous benefits to its citizenry, including free money to encourage residents to exercise in public gyms, up to $166,000 worth of baby bonus benefits for each baby born to a citizen, heavily subsidised healthcare, money to help the disabled, cheap laptops for poor students, as well as rebates in numerous areas such as public transport and utility bills.
Industry sectors Edit
Globally, Temasek has emerged as a leader in several economic sectors, including being 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 3rd-leading financial centre, 2nd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, world's largest oil-rig producer and major hub for ship repair services, as well as being the world's top logistics hub.
The economy is diversified, with its top contributors being financial services, manufacturing and oil-refining. Its main exports are refined petroleum, integrated circuits and computers, which constituted 27% of the country's GDP in 2038, and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2039, Temasek also produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.
Temasek's largest companies are in the telecoms, banking, transportation and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run enterprises, and has since been listed on the Temasek Exchange, including Temasek Telecommunications (Tematel), Temasek Technologies Engineering, Keppel Corporation, Development Bank of Singapore (DBS) and United Overseas Bank (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global financial crisis, DBS and UOB were respectably ranked as the world's 1st and 5th "strongest banks in the world".
The nation's best known global brands include Temasek Airlines, Changi Airport and Port of Temasek, all three are amongst the most-awarded in their respective industry sectors. Temasek Airlines, formerly Singapore Airlines, is ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and world's 15th most-admired in 2037, by an annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry survey. It is also the world's most awarded airline, including "Best international airline", by US-based Travel + Leisure reader surveys, for 20 consecutive years. Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 "World's Best Airport" awards as of 2042, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world.,
Tourism forms a large part of the economy, with over 17 million tourists visiting the country in 2042. To expand the sector, casinos were legalised in 2038, but only two licences for "Integrated Resorts" were issued in order to control money laundering and addiction. Temasek also promotes itself as a medical tourism hub, with about 200,000 foreigners from the surrounding Southeast Asia region seeking medical care there each year, and at least one million foreign patients from around the globe annually, generating at least US$3 billion in revenue each year. In 2035, Royal Orbis News listed Temasek as their top world destination to visit. Temasek is also an education hub, with more than 80,000 international students, an overwhelming majority from the surrounding Southeast Asia region, attending schools and institutes of higher education in Temasek.
Information and communications Edit
Information and communications technologies (ICT) is one of the pillars of Temasek's economic success with the World Economic Forum's 2038 Global Technology Report placing Temasek as the most "Tech-Ready Nation". It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity. Temasek has also topped Waseda University's International e-Government rankings from 2031 to 2039, and again in 2041. Temasek also has the world's highest smartphone penetration rate, with surveys by Google Consumer Barometer demonstrating that at least 98% of the population owned a smartphone in 2034, with an overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people.
Internet in Temasek is provided by state owned Temtel, partially state owned Starhub and M1 Limited as well as several other business internet service providers (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 2 Gbit/s as of spring 2040. Equinix (332 participants) and also its smaller brother Temasek Internet Exchange (70 participants) are Internet exchange points where Internet service providers and Content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) in various locations in Temasek.
Temasek's energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility company in Southeast Asia, with over TK$32.78 billion in assets. Customers are connected to electricity through the National Grid, with more than 870 transmission substations in the Peninsula and East Temasek linked together by approximately 35,000 km of transmission lines operating at 66, 132, 275, and 500 kilovolts. In 2041, Temasek's total power generation capacity was over 29,728 megawatts. Total electricity generation was 165,785.01 GWh and total electricity consumption was 127,087.51 GWh. Energy production in Temasek is largely based on a mix of nuclear power, oil and natural gas, owing to Temasek's large uranium, oil and natural gas reserves, which are the largest in the Southeast Asia region.
As Temasek is a Green nation with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Temasek than in even other developed countries due to the high income of the general population. As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.
Temasek's road network is one of the most comprehensive in Asia, spanning the entire nation, with three Causeways also built, two joining the island capital of Singapore to the rest of Peninsular Temasek via the state of Johor, and one linking Tanjung Pinang of Kepulautan Riau to Singapore. An undersea tunnel also links the East Temasek state of Sabah to Peninsular Temasek via the financial hub of Kuala Lumpur.
Temasek residents also commonly travel by e-scooters, bicycles, bus, taxis and train (MRT or LRT). Two companies run the train transport system—SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. Four companies, Go-Ahead, Tower-Transit, SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation run the public buses under a 'Bus Contracting Model' where operators bid for routes. There are six taxi companies, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road. Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries.
The nation is also a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Changi Airport is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and a common stopover point for long flights, hosting a network of over 100 airlines connecting Temasek to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide. It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport numerous times. There are eight airports situated around Temasek’s capital of Singapore alone, but besides Changi Airport, the other seven on are not open to the public as they serve as Air Bases for Temasek’s Air Force. Two other major international airports, Kuala Lumpur International Airports 1 and 2, also serve mainland Peninsular Temasek, being based in the financial hub of Kuala Lumpur, while four domestic airports link the four states of East Temasek to each other as well as to the rest of the nation. The national airline is Temasek Airlines.
The Port of Temasek, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2035 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for trans-shipment traffic as well as the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.
Water supply and sanitation Edit
Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Temasek relies on three main water sources, or "three national taps" - urban rainwater catchments, reclaimed water (NEWater) and seawater desalination. Temasek's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.
Due to the need to invest in and upgrade the water system to address concerns such as climate change and increasing costs of producing water and maintaining water infrastructure, water prices in Temasek has been revised since 2032, its first revision since 2017 before the nation’s formation. The prices will generally increase by 30% over two phases from 1 July 2043, with 75% of households seeing an increase of less than $18 in their monthly water bills. To help households manage the higher water prices, the Government will provide eligible HDB households with additional U-Save rebates, ranging from $40 to $120 per annum depending on their accommodation type of apartment, landed property, or Government Housing.
According to Temasek's Department of Statistics, the country's population was 61,490,794, increasing by an average of 1.54 percent per year, as of the latest 2040 census, and an average population density of anywhere from 100 to 120 people per km². Of the total population, 94.5% were citizens, while the remaining 5.5% were permanent residents, international students or foreign workers or dependants from the surrounding Southeast Asia region. The same census also reports that of the total population, 52% of residents were of Chinese ethnicity, 37% of Malay ethnicity, 2% of Tamil Indian ethnicity, 4% of any of the various Indigenous ethnicities, and 5% other descent, comprising of individuals who do not fit into any of the aforementioned racial groups, mostly those of Peranakan, Kristang or Ceylonese backgrounds. Prior to 2035, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his or her father, therefore mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2035 onward, people may either register using a multi-racial classification, in which they may choose one primary and secondary race, or register under the 'other' classification, should they wish to choose more than two ethnicites. In terms of age, individuals within the 15–64 age group constitute 70.5 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 5.0 percent. The median age of Temasekian residents was 30.5 in 2042, while the average life expectancy is 90 years of age.
As Temasek is a secular nation with no official state-sanctioned religion, the nation enjoys a wide diversity in religious beliefs. Islam is the most widely practiced religion in Temasek, owing to the nation's sizable population of Malays, with 37% declaring themselves adherents, albeit the majority of which are non-practicing, in the most recent 2040 census. Any and all forms of Sharia Law is also prohibited by the Government of Temasek on all levels as it is seen as 'a relic of a backward society'. The second most practiced religion is Christianity and/or Catholicism with 33% of the population declaring themselves to be adherents, followed by Taoism at 2%, and Hinduism at 3%, while 25% of the population stated that they did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians and non-religious individuals increased between 2039 and 2042 by about 3 percentage points each, whilst the proportion of Taoists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.
|Religion in Temasek, 2040|
The national language of Temasek is Bahasa Melayu, a standardised form of the Malay language utilizing the Latin-based Rumi script as it's official script, as per the National Language Act 2030. Bahasa Melayu functions as the official administrative language of the Government as well as that of public bodies, with all formal Government documents required to be printed in the national language. English remains as the nation's common language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act 2030, as well as being utilized in schools as the medium of instruction, while the national language is taught as a second language. English, in addition to the more colloquial Temasek English (Temglish) has also seen widespread usage in business as well as in general everyday street interactions. Historically, English was the de facto administrative language of the Singapore Government, prior to the formation of Temasek, with Bahasa Melayu only being adopted as the Government's administrative language after the formation of Temasek, as outlined in the Temasek Agreement.
Many other languages are also used in Temasek, which contains speakers of 137 living languages. Peninsular Temasek contains speakers of 41 of these languages, while the native tribes of East Temasek have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Bahasa Melayu. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah, Brunei and Kalimantan. Other than English, Temasekians of Chinese ethnicity also predominantly speak Temasekian Mandarin (Mandarin with loanwords from Bahasa Melayu), as well as several dialects such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou, while Tamil is used predominantly by ethnic Tamil Indians, who form the majority of the ethnic Indian population in Temasek. Other Southeast Asian languages such as Javanese are also spoken in Temasek, albeit less commonly, while a tiny minority of Temasekians with Eurasian ancestry speak Kristang, a creole language with influences from Portuguese and Bahasa Melayu.
|Language||Language Fluency (% out of total population)||Frequency of Usage In The Home (% from total population)|
|Mandarin (or dialects)||57%||45%|
The education system in Temasek has been noted to be one of the best in the world. Temasek students excelled in most of the world education benchmarks in maths, science and reading. In 2040, both its primary and secondary students rank first in OECD's global school performance rankings across 76 countries—described as the most comprehensive map of education standards. In 2041, Temasek students topped both the Program International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).
In the 2041 International Baccalaureate exams taken in 107 countries, Temasek students fared best with more than half of the world's 81 perfect scorers and 98% passing rate. In the 2042 EF English Proficiency Index taken in 72 countries, Temasek placed 5th and has been the only Asian country in the top ten. Temasek literature students have also won the Angus Ross Prize by Cambridge Examinations every year since 2030, a prize awarded to the top A-level English literature student with about 12,000 international candidates.
Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is also mostly supported by the state, with all private and public institutions registered under the Ministry of Education. English is the medium of instruction in all public schools, and all subjects are taught and examined in English with the exception of the Bahasa Kebangsaan and Mother Tongue language papers, which are done in Bahasa Melayu and Mandarin or Tamil accordingly. Students of Malay ethnicity, whose mother tongue is the national language, are expected to take advanced Bahasa Kebangsaan in place of mother tongue subjects, with exams done accordingly. While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Temasek's education system it is used to refer to the third language, as English and Bahasa Melayu are the first and second languages. Students of non-Malay ethnicity who have been abroad for a period of at least five years, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, may be allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject entirely.
Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education, with the primary and secondary level being compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, Bahasa Kebangsaan, the mother tongue, mathematics, and science. Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level. The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised. Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools known as Junior Colleges. As alternatives to pre-university education, courses are also offered in other post-secondary education institutions, including 5 polytechnics and institutes of technical education (ITEs). Temasek has a multitude of public universities, of which the National University of Temasek, Nanyang Technological University, Universiti Malaya, Universiti Sains Penang, and Universiti Teknologi Kuala Lumpur, make up the top five universities in Southeast Asia and are among the top ten universities in the world.
National examinations are also standardised across all schools with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, the Sijil Pelajaran Temasek (SPT) exams are taken; following which the GCE "A"-Level exams are completed at the end of the pre-university stage.
Temasek has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for a top-tier developed country. The World Health Organisation ranks Temasek's healthcare system as 2nd overall in the world in its World Health Report, with the lowest infant mortality rate in the world for the past two decades and an average life expectancy of 90 years old, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy. Such high life expectancy may be attributed to the entire population having unhindered access to improved water and sanitation facilities, while also having an astonishing low obesity rate of less than 2% due to the nation's emphasis on health.
The government's healthcare system is also based upon a "3M" framework comprised of three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. A subsidy scheme also exists for those on low income. In 2040, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government, with the industry accounting for approximately 3.5% of Temasek's GDP.
Fine Arts Edit
The National Gallery of Temasek located in the capital of Singapore is the nation's flagship museum with as many as 8,000 works by Temasekian artists with a focus on traditional art. Traditional Peninsular Temasekian art was mainly centered on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing, ranging from handwoven baskets to elaborate silverwork. Common artworks include ornamental keris, beetle nut sets, woven batik and songket fabrics, while East Temasek was known for woodwork, specifically tribal style wooden masks among other things.
As for contemporary art, The Temasek Art Museum as well as Red Dot Design Museum celebrates exceptional art and design of objects from everyday life with more than 1,000 exhibits curated from all over Temasek. A unique attempt to redefine temporary art may also be seen in Temasek's lotus-shaped ArtScience Museum, the first in Orbis which aims to combine art with the sciences, featuring a total of 21 gallery spaces equating to 50,000 square feet and displaying exhibits from combined art/science, media/technology, as well as design/architecture motifs. Other major museums include the Asian Civilizations Museum, Peranakan Museum and the Arts House.
The famous durian-shaped Esplanade is Temasek's largest performing arts centre with many performances throughout the year, including 5,965 free arts and culture events in 2041 alone. Some of the major music and dance groups who have performed at the Esplanade include the Temasek Symphony Orchestra, Temasek Chinese Orchestra, and Temasek Dance Theatre.
Temasek has a diverse music culture that ranges from pop and rock, to folk and classical. Western classical music plays a significant role in the cultural life in Temasek, with the Temasek Symphony Orchestra (TSO) instituted in 2031. Other notable western orchestras in Temsek include Temasek National Youth Orchestra which is funded by the Ministry of Education, and the community-based Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra. Various communities also have their own distinct ethnic musical traditions, with these traditional forms of music, various modern musical styles and the fusion of different forms accounting for the musical diversity in the country. The nation's lively urban musical scene has also made it a centre for international performances and festivals in the region.
Temasekian cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices that reflect the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. As a result of historical migrations and its geographical position within the Southeast Asia region, Temasek's culinary style in the present day is primarily a melange of traditions from its Malay, Chinese, Tamil, Javanese, and ethnic Bornean citizens.
The nation possesses a burgeoning food scene, with dining said to be a national pastime in Temasek, and even an obsession for many, as the unique diversity of cuisine is often touted as a main reason to visit the country. The traditional open-air hawker centres and kopitiams, as well as their more modern air-conditioned equivalents, offer one of the best locations for dining as it is affordable and of good quality, while also boasting adequate variety, with such centres typically containing a few dozen to a hundred or more food stalls, each specializing in a single dish or a number of related dishes.
In 2040, there were more than 650 hawker centres and kopitiams of both the traditional and modern variety spread across both Peninsular and East Temasek. They are maintained by the National Environment Agency, which may also grade each food stall for hygiene. One of the most popular and largest hawker centres in Temasek is located in the capital of Singapore, on the second floor of Chinatown Complex with over 200 stalls. The complex is also home to the cheapest Michelin-starred meal in the world – a plate of soya-sauce chicken rice or noodles for a mere TK$2, one of two hawker stalls to be awarded a Michelin star.
Local food items also generally belong to a particular one of Temasek's ethnicities, but diversity of cuisine has increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles, such as the Peranakan cuisine, which is a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisines. In hawker centres, cultural diffusion can also be noted where traditionally Malay hawker stalls sell Tamil food. In a similar fashion, Chinese stalls may also introduce Malay ingredients, cooking techniques or entire dishes into their range of catering, creating an increasingly rich cuisine as well as a unique cultural attraction. Hainanese chicken rice and Nasi Lemak are commonly considered by most to be Temasek's national dishes, while the local Teh Tarik (lit. 'pulled tea') and Kopi Putih Peng (lit. 'iced white coffee') constitute what are widely considered to be Temasek's national drinks.
Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Temasek with television channel company MediaCorp operating most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Temasek. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp while Starhub's Cable Vision (CV) also offers cable television with channels from around the globe, and Temtel's Mio TV provides an IPTV service. Temasek Press Holdings, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Temasek, offering Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies.
Temasek's media industry has occasionally been criticized for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Orbis Freedom House, with self-censorship among journalists said to be common. In 2034, Temasek dipped to its lowest ranking ever (153rd of 18,790 nations) on the Press Freedom Index published by the Orbis Reporters Without Borders. The Media Development Authority regulates Temasekian media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.
In 2036, there were an estimated 60 million internet users in Temasek, representing 98.75% of the population. While the Ministry of Communications and Information under the Temasek government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet, it maintains a list of several hundred websites of a pornographic nature that it blocks as a "symbolic statement of Temasek's stand against harmful and undesirable content on the Internet".
Holidays and festivals Edit
Temasekians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays while some are observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, with the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed national holiday is Hari Kebangsaan Temasek (Temasek National Day) on 19th July, commemorating the formation of the Federation of the Republic of Temasek in 2030.
Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the majority religion, with Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri) and Hari Raya Haji being observed among others. Temasekian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs, while Hindus in Temasek celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights.
Temasek's Christian community celebrate most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai, while the Kadazandusun community in Sabah, Kalimantan and Brunei celebrate Kaamatan. Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as "open house", Temasekians of all races and religions participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival, and where appropriate, bringing traditionally homemade (although now mostly store-bought) kuih, local bite-sized snack or dessert foods originating from Chinese, Nonya (Peranakan) and Malay cusines.
Sport and recreation Edit
The rakyat of Temasek participate in a wide variety of sports for recreation as well as for competition. Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, rugby union, badminton, cycling, skate boarding, sepak takraw, bowling, and silat. Public residential areas usually provide amenities like swimming pools, outdoor spaces (football, basketball courts, running tracks) and multiple indoor sport centres, with facilities for badminton, squash, table tennis, gymnastics, indoor basketball and volleyball, among others.
Living on a peninsula and islands surrounded by the ocean, the people of Temasek also enjoy various water activities including swimming, sailing, kayaking and water-skiing. There is also a number of avid recreational scuba divers as there are several prominent diving spots throughout the nation, with the most notable being the southern island of Pulau Hantu, Pulau Redang, Pulau Tioman, and Langkawi, all of which are famous for their wildlife and coral reefs.
While not a major sporting power, Temasek's athletes have performed well in regional and international competitions, especially in table tennis, badminton, swimming and water polo. To date, Temasek has hosted the inaugural 2042 Summer Youth Olympics as well as the 2043 Southeat Asian Games, in which 3,600 athletes from 204 nations competed in 26 sports.
The country also boasts its own Formula One track, the Sepang International Circuit in Kuala Lumpur. It runs for 310.408 kilometres (192.88 mi) and held its first Grand Prix in 2038, hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship with the inaugural F1 night race, subsequently followed by the first F1 street race in Asia.
The Federation of Temasek Olympic Council was formed in 2032, receiving recognition by the International Orbis Olympics Council in 2033. Temasek first participated in the 2033 Melbourne Olympic Games, following which the council was renamed the Olympic Council of Temasek in 2038, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 2042 Munich Olympic Games. Temasekian athletes have won a total of twelve Olympic medals: eight in badminton, three in platform diving, and one in cycling. The country has also competed at the Commonwealth Games since 2038 and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 2042.
- The national flag of Temasek is heavily inspired by the original flag of Malaya as well as that of present-day Malaysia, utilizing near identical colours and taking design elements from both flags.
- While a crescent moon is present on the national flag, Temasek is not an Islamic nation although Islam is one of its major religions.
- The name of Temasek's national flag Jalur Gemilang is reference to the three off-center stripes that run the width of the flag.
- An alternate proposed name for the national flag of Temasek was the Bendera Bintang (Starry Flag).
- Had Indonesia joined Temasek, Jakarta would have become the fifth Federal Territory.
- Despite being referred to as states or Negeri by Temasek's Federal Government, the emblems of Kepulautan Riau and Kepulautan Bangka Belitung still refer to them as provinces or Provinsi. It is unknown whether this is intentional or not.